By Naz Deravian, The New York Times
In the Iranian kitchen, the dizzying aroma of sweet saffron mingled with the warm, nutty scent of perfectly steamed rice is a time-honored call to the table. Even though it is known as the world’s most expensive spice, saffron is ubiquitous in Persian cuisine and infuses a wide array of dishes with soul.
We can all welcome saffron into our kitchens frequently and fearlessly by taking cues from Iranian home cooks, who use the spice regularly, economically and wisely. If treated properly, a small pinch can brighten and perfume savory and sweet dishes and drinks.
Ancient Persians, among other early civilizations, treasured saffron for its healing, mood-enhancing and decorative virtues and, later, its culinary ones. Ever since, saffron has left its gastronomic mark across the globe.
Harvesting saffron is extremely laborious, hence its high cost. Saffron comes from the crocus sativus plant, which produces two flowers, each one with three stigmas (saffron threads). The delicate flowers are harvested by hand in the fall and must be picked in a matter of hours each morning before they wilt. The stigmas are then hand-plucked and dried. It takes about 200 flowers to produce 1 gram of saffron.
Thankfully, only a little saffron is needed to flavor a dish. In fact, too much can make a meal bitter. In Iranian cooking, whole threads are rarely used. Instead, to stretch saffron and make its use financially feasible, cooks grind the threads with a small pinch of sugar or salt, which creates friction, to yield a fine powder. This is commonly done in a mortar and pestle, though larger quantities are often pulsed in a spice grinder, then stored in an airtight container for ready use.
The ground saffron is then steeped in a process similar to brewing tea. After water comes to a boil, it is left to stand for two minutes so its temperature drops slightly. A few spoonfuls are added to the ground saffron to bloom and draw out its flavor, color and perfume. According to traditional Persian medicine, this process is believed to also activate saffron’s medicinal properties. Pouring water at a rolling boil over saffron has the opposite effect, scalding the fragile spice. In Iranian folklore, it is said to kill saffron’s soul. No one wants to do that.
The saffron water can then be used right away in recipes like salmon kebabs or grilled chicken, or it can be covered and kept in the refrigerator for a couple of days without losing its potency. Avoid buying inexpensive bottled saffron water, as it is most likely adulterated with food coloring, turmeric, paprika or safflower. There is no ingredient that can be substituted for saffron to replicate its rich, floral, sweet and earthy flavor, intoxicating aroma and warm sunset hue.
Saffron — and the ritual of preparing it — respects tradition, history and, more importantly, the love, care and toil that go into its harvesting. So when you pour your saffron water into your dish, make sure there isn’t a single speck of the liquid gold clinging to the bowl’s sides. If there is, drizzle in a little more water, swish it around and add it to the dish. Or knock it back as a drink, with a toast to your health — and to saffron’s soul.
Saffron Salmon Kebabs
Buttery, saffron-stained and gently spiced, these Iranian kebabs come together in no time and make for a beautiful, flavorful meal. The warming spice mix of oregano, coriander, black pepper and turmeric balances and lifts the sweet notes from the saffron and salmon. To keep the fish in place when turning the kebabs on the grill, use 1/2-inch-wide flat skewers or two thin, round skewers. You can entertain with these skewers or enjoy them on a quiet weeknight, along with dill rice and a side of fresh herbs, or cucumber, tomato and onion salad.
Yield: 4 servings
Total time: 1 hour
- About 1 1/2 teaspoons saffron threads (.35 grams)
- Pinch of sugar
- 3 tablespoons fresh lime juice, plus lime wedges for serving
- 2 tablespoons extra-virgin olive oil
- 2 large garlic cloves, finely grated
- 1 1/4 teaspoons kosher salt (Diamond Crystal)
- 1/2 teaspoon dried oregano, crushed between your fingers
- 1/2 teaspoon ground coriander
- 1/2 teaspoon black pepper
- 1/4 teaspoon ground turmeric
- 1 1/2 pounds skinless salmon (preferably center-cut), cut into 1-inch pieces
- Fresh herbs, such as mint, cilantro and basil, for serving
1. Using a mortar and pestle or small bowl and the handle end of a wooden spoon, grind the saffron with a pinch of sugar to a fine powder (about 1/4 teaspoon). Transfer to a large bowl. Bring 2 tablespoons water to a boil in a saucepan, kettle or using the microwave, then let stand for 2 minutes to allow the water temperature to drop slightly. Add to the ground saffron powder, gently stir, cover and steep for 5 minutes.
2. To the saffron water, add the lime juice, olive oil, garlic, salt, oregano, coriander, pepper and turmeric. Stir to mix, add the salmon pieces and combine until the salmon is well coated. Cover and marinate in the refrigerator for 30 minutes.
3. As the salmon marinates, prepare a charcoal grill until the coals are ashed over and slightly cooled to medium-hot or heat a gas grill to medium-high. Skewer the salmon and save any remaining marinade. Grill the skewers, brushing with the remaining marinade and turning every couple of minutes, until tender and buttery, about 10 minutes total. Serve with lime wedges for squeezing over the fish. Enjoy, with bites of fresh herbs between bites of salmon.
This article originally appeared in The New York Times.
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